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2011年同等学力人员申请硕士学位外国语水平全国统一考试英语试卷(三)

发布时间:2016-04-07 09:52 阅读次数:
本文关键字:2011年,同等学力,人员,申请,硕士学位,外国语,
Passage Four  
If you haven't heard or seen anything about Road Rage in the last few months, you've probably been avoiding the media. There have been countless stories about this new and scary phenomenon, considered a type of aggressive driving. You have most likely encountered aggressive driving and/or Road Rage recently if you drive at all.  
While drunk driving remains a critical problem, the facts about aggressive driving are surely as disturbing. For instance, according to the National Highway Transportation Safety Association, 41,907 people died on the highway last year. Of those fatalities, the agency estimates that about twothirds were caused at least in part by aggressive driving behavior.
Why is this phenomenon occurrifig more than ever now, and why is it something that seemed almost nonexistent a few short years ago? Experts have several theories, and all are probably partially correct. One suggestion is sheer overcrowding. In the last decade, the number of cars on the roads has increased by more than 11 percent, and the number of miles driven has increased by 35 percent. However, the number of new road miles has only increased by 1 percent. That means more cars in the same amount of space; and the problem is magnified in urban areas. Also, people have less time and more things to do. With people working and trying to fit extra chores (琐事) and activities into the day, stress levels have never been higher. Stress creates anxiety, which leads to short tempers. These factors, when combined in certain situations, can spell Road Rage.
You may think you are the last person who would drive aggressively, but you might be surprised. For instance, have you ever yelled out loud at a slower driver, sounded the horn long and hard at another car, or sped up to keep another driver from passing? If you recognize yourself in any of these situations, watch out!
Whether you are getting angry at other drivers, or another driver is visibly upset with you, there are things you can do to avoid any major confrontation. If you are susceptible to Road Rage, the key is to discharge your emotion in a healthy way. If you are the target of another driver's rage, do everything possible to get away from theother driver safely, including avoiding eye contact and getting out of their way.
49. The first sentence in Paragraph 1 implies that ______________.
A. people not interested in the media know little about recent happenings
B. Road Rage has received much media coverage in the last few months
C. one may be raged by media reports and wants to avoid them
D. the media coined the term "Road Rage" only a few months ago
50. According to the National Highway Transportation Safety Association, last year______.
A. drunk driving remained the No. 1 killer on the highways
B. more people were killed by aggressive driving than by drunk driving
C. two thirds of drivers were killed by aggressive driving
D. 41,907 people fell victim to aggressive driving
51. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of aggressive driving?
A. Increasing number of cars.  B. Drivers' stress and anxiety.
C. Overcrowded roads.       D. Rush hour traffic.
52. The word “spell” in Paragraph 3 means“______________”.
A. speak      B. cause   C. describe    D. spare
53. Which of the following characterizes aggressive driving?
A. Talking while driving.      B. Driving fast.
C. Yelling at another driver.   D. Sounding the horn when passing.
54. The last paragraph is intended to ____________.
A. tell people how to cope with Road Rage
B. inform people how aggressive drivers could be
C. tell people how to control themselves when angry
D. warn people against eye contact with another driver
Passage Five  
In the early 20th century, a horse named Clever Hans was believed capable of counting and other impressive mental tasks. After years of great performance, psychologists discovered that though Hans was certainly clever, he was not clever in the way everyone expected. The horse was cleverly picking up on tiny, unintentional bodily and facial signals given out not only by his trainer, but also by the audience.
Aware of the“Clever Hans” effect, Lisa Lit at the University of California and her colleagues wondered whether the beliefs of professional dog handlers might similarly affect the outcomes of searches for drugs and explosives. Remarkably, Dr Lit found, they do.  
Dr Lit asked 18 professional dog handlers and their dogs to complete brief searches. Before the searches, the handlers were informed that some of the search areas might contain up to three target scents, and also that in two cases those scents would be marked by pieces of red paper. What the handlers were not told was that none of the search areas contained the scents of either drugs or explosives. Any “detections” made by the teams thus had to be false.
The findings reveal that of 144 searches, only 21 were clean (no alerts). All the others raised one alert or more. In total, the teams raised 225 alerts. While the sheer number of false alerts struck Dr Lit as fascinating, it was where they took place that was of greatest interest.
When handlers could see a red piece of paper, allegedly marking a location of interest, they were much more likely to say that their dogs signalled an alert. The human handlers were not only distracted on almost every occasion by the stimulus aimed at them, but also transmitted that distraction to their animalswho responded accordingly. To mix metaphors, the dogs were crying “wolf” at the unconscious signal of their handlers.
How much that matters in the real world is unclear. But it might, If a handler, for example, unconsciously“profiled” people being sniffed by a drugor explosivedetecting dog at an airport, false positives could abound. That is not only bad for innocent travellers, but might distract the team from catching the guilty.
55. What did psychologists find out about Clever Hans?
A. He was as clever as people claimed.
B. He was really good at counting.
C. He could understand human language.
D. He merely responded to human signals.
56. Lisa Lit and her colleagues ___________.
A. questioned the“Clever Hans” effect
B. discovered the“Clever Hans” effect
C. confirmed the “Clever Hans”effect
D. rejected the“Clever Hans”effect
57. The dog handlers learned before the searches that __________.
A. each search area contained three target scents
B. there was actually no target scent in the search area
C. some target scents may be labelled with a special mark
D. their dogs were expected to f'md the scents of red paper
58. What was most significant about the experiment, according to Dr. Lit?
A. The location of the false alerts.
B. The regularity of the false alerts.
C. The number of the false alerts.
D. The timing of the false alerts.
59. It can be concluded from the experiment that ___________.
A. dog handlers are more likely to be distracted than their dogs
B. dogs may act in response to their handlers' bodily signals
C. the cooperation between dogs and their handlers is key to success
D. welltrained
dogs can better understand their handlers' signals
60. The author thinks that Dr. Lit's findings _____________.
A. should raise our concern in real life
B. may not be useful in real situations
C. should be backed up by further evidence
D. will be widely applied in the near future
Part IV Close (15 minutes, 15 points, 1 for each)  
Directions: In this part, there is a passage with 15 blanks. For each blank there are 4 choices marked A.B.C.D. Choose the best answer for each blank and mark the corresponding letter with a single bar across the square brackets on your machine-scoring ANSWER SHEET.  
 Zoos have become an important site for the preservation and protection of wildlife resources, 61  those species that are endangered. 62 , many zoos displayed live animals for public entertainment. Presently some zoos have become scientific and educational 63 that have contributed to the understanding and conservation of wild animal populations. 64 the challenges facing modern zoos are the cost of upgrading old facilities, the struggle to obtain 65 operating funds, and the need to attract more visitors to new and entertaining exhibits.
Many 66 zoos in American dries have undergone renovation (翻新) during the last decades of the twentieth century. Among the recent trends in zoo 67 is the construction of new enclosures that resemble natural habitats (栖息地). The replacement of traditional steel bars and concrete floors 68 appropriately designed surroundings improves visitor appreciation of the animals. Such renovations may. 69 stress on animals and allow them to interact with one another more naturally.
Several major zoos conduct captive propagation programs. A captive propagation program includes the breeding of  70  zoo or wild animals to obtain offspring, usually for release to  71 or for transfer to other zoos. Captive breeding is one method of  72  some species from extinction.
Zoos have expanded and improved public education programs also, with education departments that develop programs 73 zoo exhibits. Public activities include inschool programs, zoo tours, special events, and websites. The Zoological Society of New York, for example, conducted a major project with a Western African government to monitor an elephant herd 74 it moved throughout its range.
The importance of zoos will increase as natural habitats are diminishing. Through their efforts 75 conservation, education, and environmental advocacy, zoos will continue to play a critical role in wildlife preservation throughout the world.
61. A. superficially      B. especially      C. importantly     D. supposedly
62. A. By that time      B. By the time     C. At one time     D. At that time
63. A. institutions       B. associations     C. foundations    D. corporations
64. A. Along           B. Toward         C. Among       D. Through
65. A. limited          B. professional      C. sufficient     D. excessive
66. A. newer          B. older            C. former       D. later
67. A. management     B. improvement     C. achievement   D. assessment
68. A. under          B. for              C. into          D. with
69. A. reduce         B. cause            C. increase       D. avoid
70. A. selected        B. sustained         C. promising      D. surviving
71. A. natural         B. the natural        C. wild          D. the wild
72. A. restraining      B. saving            C. sheltering     D. exempting
73. A. attributed to     B. opposed to        C. referred to     D. related to
74. A. as             B. as if              C. so           D. so that
75. A. in search of     B. in honor of         C. in support of   D. in charge of
 
Paper Two  
Part I Translation (30 minutes, 20 points, 10 for each section)  
Section A  
Directions: Translate the following passage onto Chinese.Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.  
 Over the years, we tend to think that nuclear technologies and the necessary knowhow to ensure nuclear safety have been developed to a level that possibilities for any major nuclear accidents are almost nonexistent and if it does happen, it will be controlled in the capable hands of nuclear engineers. However, reality has proved again that you just can't be too careful to handle nuclear energy. We don't know for sure yet what will be left behind Japan's nuclear crisis, but it will be certain that it is time to reexamine our nuclear practices and many more efforts need to be made to ensure nuclear safety in the future.
Section B  
Directions: Translate the following passage into English. Write your translation on the AN SWER SHEET.  
中国有着 5000 年的文化传统,历经劫波而生生不息,我们一定要充分发扬祖国的文化传统。同时我们也懂得,要学习和借鉴世界先进的文明。只有这样,才能使祖国的文化得到进一步发展,也就是我常说的,只有开放包容,才能使祖国强大。  
Part II Writing (30 minutes, 15 points)  
Directions: In this part, you are to write within 30 minutes a composition of no less than 150 words under the title of“How to Handle Stress”. The clues given below are for your reference only, NOT the outline you should follow. Please remember to writeyour composition clearly on the COMPOSITION SHEET.
 
1. Common sources of stress.
2. Healthy ways to reduce stress.
3. How you have overcome stressful situations.
 

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